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Humshehri: Thinking Pakistan's History

Thinking Pakistan's History


Urdu Version

A new era of Muslim rule began with the Mughals from Central Asia in the early 16th century, beginning with Babar.

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Last Updated: 27 Jan. 2014


Emperor Babar
Emperor Babar
(Wikimedia Commons)

Babar from Central Asia, the great grandson of Timur as well as descendant of the famous Chenghiz Khan, was the founder of the Mughal Empire. After failing to expand his empire in Central Asia, he turned his sights towards the Delhi Sultanate, seeking to restore the land that had belonged to Timur. Daulat Khan, the viceroy of Punjab under Ibrahim Lodhi, invited Babar to conquer India and rid it of the unpopular Lodhi ruler. In 1526 he invaded, meeting the forces of Ibrahim Lodhi, the last head of the Delhi Sultanate, at Panipat. Babar won a complete victory. He went on to defeat the Rajputs in 1527 and Lodhi’s brother in 1529, making him the ruler of northern part of the subcontinent. Babar stayed on to organize the administration of his empire and died shortly after in 1530.

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Books & Articles

Bajwa, Farooq N. “The Mughal Empire.” Pakistan: A Historical and Contemporary Look. Revised ed. Karachi: Oxford UP, 2002.

Ikram, S. M. “The Establishment of the Mughal Empire.” Muslim Civilization in India. Ed. Ainslie T. Embree. New York: Columbia UP, 1964. South Asia Study Resources. Columbia University.


PBS The Story of India: Episode 5 – Babur Rules