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Humshehri: Thinking Pakistan's History

Thinking Pakistan's History

Subordinate Courts

The subordinate courts can be broadly categorized into civil courts and criminal courts as well as special courts and tribunals dealing with both civil and criminal matters.

Civil and Criminal Courts

The Subordinate Courts can be divided into two main categories, namely civil courts (established by the West Pakistan Civil Court Ordinance 1962) and the criminal courts (established by Criminal Procedure Code 1898). The judges in these courts are appointed by their respective provincial governments. However, the High Court enjoys administrative control over them.

Subordinate Courts
Civil Court
Criminal Court
District Judge
Session Judge
Additional District Judge
Additional Session Judge
Senior Civil Judge
Judicial Magistrate (Class I, II & III)
Civil Judge (Class I, II & III)

Special Courts and Tribunals

Apart from the above, there are other courts and tribunals dealing with both civil and criminal matters that are established under special laws. Their powers and functions are prescribed by the laws that create them. Some examples are as follows:

  • Consumer Protection Courts
  • Labor Courts
  • Family Courts
  • Banking Courts
  • Anti-Corruption Courts
  • Anti-Terrorism Courts
  • Drugs Courts
  • Juvenile Courts
  • Income Tax Tribunals
  • Environment Tribunals

Administrative Courts and Tribunals.- (1) notwithstanding anything hereinbefore contained, the appropriate Legislature may by Act provide for the establishment of one or more Administrative Courts or Tribunals to exercise exclusive jurisdiction in respect of-

  1. Matters relating to the terms and conditions of persons who are or have been] in the service of Pakistan, including disciplinary matters;
  2. Matters relating to claims arising from to tortious acts of Government, or any person in the service of Pakistan, or of any local or other authority empowered by law to levy any tax or cess and any servant of such authority acting in the discharge of his duties as such servant; or
  3. Matters relating to the acquisition, administration and disposal of any property which is deemed to be enemy property under any law.

Article 212 from Pakistan Consititution

Find out more

Books & Articles

Hussain, Faqir. The Judicial System of Pakistan. Supreme Court of Pakistan, 2011.

Vardag, Zaman K. “Structure of Courts in Pakistan”. Pakistani Law Firm.


Government of Punjab, Directorate of Provincial Consumer Protection Council

Pakistan Environment and Health Portal: Environment Protection Tribunal